The infraction or offense of speeding is committed when the driver of a motor vehicle exceeds the posted speed limit or exceeds the speed limit that is reasonable and prudent under the circumstances or conditions—such as the road (straight, curved, wet, dry, icy, flat, hilly); the weather (clear, foggy, raining, snowing); and the visibility (smoke from a grass fire or a tractor trailer obstructing the view).
Speeding laws (and enforcement) vary from state to state and among cities and towns (local ordinances) and are usually located in a state’s statutes. The penalty for speeding is usually a fine and demerit points added to the driver’s license or driving record.
To measure the speed of a moving vehicle and issue speeding tickets, police officers generally use radar guns that rely on radio signals and the Doppler Effect, or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technology that relies on lasers rather than radio waves. These devices require training on their proper use and regular calibration to be accurate.