Real property

title defect

A title defect is anything that can cause a title to be considered invalid or defective in some way. Some examples are:

• Invalid documents due to forgery, fraud, undue influence, duress, incompetency, incapacity, or impersonation.

• Failure of any person or entity to have authorized a transfer or conveyance.

• A document affecting title that is not properly executed, signed, witnessed, notarized, or delivered.

• Undisclosed or unrecorded easements not otherwise apparent on your land.

• No right of access to and from the land.

• A document executed under a falsified, expired, or otherwise invalid power of attorney.

• A document not properly filed, recorded, or indexed in the public records.

• Ownership claims by undisclosed or missing heirs.

• Defect arising from an improper prior foreclosure.

• Undisclosed restrictive covenants affecting your property.

Lien issues can also cause title defects. Some examples of lien issues are:

• Any statutory or constitutional contractor’s, mechanic’s, or materialman’s lien for labor or materials that began on or before the policy date. Talk to an attorney about your rights.

• Lien for labor or materials furnished by a contractor without your consent.

• A previous owner failed to pay

o a mortgage or deed of trust

o a judgment, tax, or special assessment

o a charge by a homeowners or condominium association.

• Other liens or claims that may exist against your title that are not listed in the policy.

State Statutes for the State of Texas


(i) a lien or encumbrance on or defect in the title to the real property; or


interests in or liens on that real property, against loss or damage resulting from an encumbrance on or defect in the title to the real property or interests in the real property;

Federal Statutes